Partnership Firm Registration

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What is Partnership Firm?

Partnership firm represents a business entity that is formed with a purpose of making a profit from the business. Two or more parties come together with a formal agreement (known as Partnership Deed) to own and manage the business. The risk and responsibilities are shared amongst the partners that shred the burden of an individual partner. Also, when two comes together, more capital and expertise are combined that helps to reach the business goal(s) easily.

Partnership Act, 1932 defines the structure of a Partnership firm by providing all the necessary provisions to run the same. The Act validates both registered and unregistered partnership firms in India. However, an unregistered partnership has few shortcomings that attract partners towards Partnership Firm Registration. But, one can overcome it by registration firm anytime after it is formed.


Benefits of Partnership Firm


Documents required for formation of a Partnership Firm

How to choose a name?

Unique Name

A unique name helps to recognise the Partnership distinctly and build brand value

Business Object

A part of name should suggest the business activity of the firm

Short and Simple

The name should not be unnecessarily long and should be simple to spell and remember.

Online Registration

Establish Partnership in 3 Easy Steps

*Subject to Government processing time

The Process

Process to establish Partnership Firm

Compare Related Services

Compare different business structures to choose the right entity type

Private Limited Company One Person Company Limited Liability Partnership Partnership Firm Proprietorship Firm
Applicable Law Companies Act, 2013 Companies Act, 2013 Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 Indian Partnership Act, 1932 No specified Act
Registration Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Optional No
PLC must be registered with MCA under the Companies Act Same as Private Limited Company LLP must be registered with MCA under the LLP Act Partnerships can be registerd or Unregistered, there are obvious benefits to register with the State ROF No registration required. Registration under MSME or GST act are considered valid for Proprietor Firms
Number of Owners 2 – 200 Only 1 2 – Unlimited 2 – 50 Only 1
Minimum of 2 to maximum of 200 shareholders excluding present or former employees who are members Only one shareholder Minimum 2 Designated Partners are required. No limit on the number of maximum partners Minimum 2 partners, and maximum 50 partners The proprietor can be the only owner of the firm
Separate Legal Entity Yes Yes Yes No No
PLC is a separate legal entity, and can enter into contracts or own assets in it’s own name Same as Private Limited Comapany Same as Private Limited Comapany Partnership firm does not have any separate identity from its partners Proprietor and business are the same, and hold same PAN number
Liability Protection Limited Limited Limited Unlimited Unlimited
Limited to the share capital subscribed (may vary if defined as limited by guarantee or unlimited liability in the MOA) Same as Private Limited Company Limited to the capital contribution agreed by the partner in the LLP Agreement Partners are jointly and severally liable to pay the debts of the Partnership Firm Paying off the liabilities of the firm is the proprietor’s responsibility
Statutory Audit Mandatory Mandatory Based On Applicability Not Mandatory Not Mandatory
Required to appoint a statutory auditor within 30 days of company incorporation Same as Private Limited Company Statutory audit required when turnover exceeds INR 40 Lac or contribution exceeds INR 25 Lac No statutory audit required. Tax audit applicable on basis of total turnover Same as Partnership Firm
Ownership Transferability Yes Yes (Restricted) Yes Yes (Restricted) No
Shares are easily transferable, so it makes it a most preferred option for raising capital through external investors There is only one owner in OPC. 100% shares need to be tranferred to change ownership Ownership can be changed with consent of other partners, by drafting a supplementary agreement Ownership is not easily transferable. Partnership deed outlines the restriction for transfer of ownership Ownership of the proprietorship is not transferable
Perpetual Existence Yes Yes Yes No No
Private Company prevails with change in ownership or management OPC has a perpetual succession, but can only have one owner at any time Change in Partners or Designated Partners does not affect the existence of an LLP Change in partner leads to dissolution or formation of another partnership firm Death or insolvency of proprietor dissolves the business
Foreign Ownership Allowed Not Allowed Allowed Allowed Not Allowed
Foreign nationals can invest as per RBI and FEMA guidelines, usually under the Automatic Route Member, nominee and director must be an Indian resident Foreign nationals can invest as per RBI and FEMA guidelines, usually under the Automatic Route Nnon Resident Indian (NRI) can be a partner in the Partnership Firm, subject to RBI regulations Foreign Nationals cannot own proprietorship business in India
Taxability Moderate Moderate High High Low
Lower rate of 25% for companies with gross turnover of INR 400 Crore. Additional dividend distribution tax may apply Same as Private Limited Company Tax rate of 30% on business profits, tax benefits to partners on profit distribution is high Same as LLP Tax rates for individuals apply to Proprietorship Firm, as per the Income Tax slab
Compliance Requirement High High Moderate Low Low
Private company has the highest compliance requirements, both annual and event based OPC compliance requirements are similar to PLC, except conducting an Annual General Meeting (AGM) Annual filing and few event based filings are necessary, but lesser compliance requirements as compared to company structure ITR of partnership needs to be filed annually, no major compliance requirements otherwise No requirement to file a separate ITR. Very less to no compliance hassle
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Frequently Asked Questions

The formation and Registration of a Partnership Firm in India


The Partnership Act provides that both registered and unregistered partnerships are valid and recognised by law. Partnership registration is not compulsory but is beneficial due to effects of non-registration. Mostly, the businesses at initial level prefer unregistered partnership till they reach stable level. The unregistered partnership can be registered at any time after its formation.


Formation of Partnership Firm does not require any minimum amount. It can be started with any amount of capital contribution by the partners. The Partners can contribute in any amount agreed and in any form being tangible (cash, premise) or intangible (goodwill, intellectual property). The Partners can introduce capital in any ratio, equal or uneven.


Due to non-registration, the firm cannot file suit against any partner or the third party. A partner also cannot sue the partnership firm for his claim. However, the third parties can sue the firm to enforce their dues or claims. Non-registration does not affect the rights of third parties. Also, the partnership can be registered any time after formation to remove the said effects.


It is possible to form a partnership firm with only two partners by following the process described. Further, the Partner to be introduced and appointed in the Firm must be an Indian resident and citizen. NRI and Persons of Indian Origin can only invest in a Partnership with prior approval of the Government. The individual must be competent to contract and not a minor. A minor can be introduced to a Partnership Firm only for profit.


Only a registered partnership firm can claim a set off (i.e. mutual adjustment of debts owned by the disputant parties to one another) or other proceedings in a dispute with a third party. Hence, it is advisable for partnership firms to get it registered sooner or later. Also, only a registered partnership firm can file a suit in any court against the firm or other partners for the enforcement of any right arising from a contract or right conferred by the Partnership Act. An unregistered Partnership Firm can get registered at any point of time after its establishment.


The application for Partnership Firm Registration in India is submitted with the Registrar of Firms (RoF) under whose jurisdiction the Place of Business of Partnership Firm falls. The application of Registration is made in required form along with submitting the Partnership Deed. At the end of the registration procedure, the Certificate of Registration is issued by respective RoF. The process and time of registration may differ for each RoF.


The Partners should specifically mention about the main object and activities along with major clauses related to capital contribution, profit sharing ratio of the partners, management and administration of Partnership Firm. Further, the signed Partnership Deed shall be duly stamped and notarized.


To confirm the validity of the partnership deed, the partners must pay stamp duty required as per the capital of the firm. The amount of stamp duty payable depends on the amount of capital contribution by partners. The rate of duty is prescribed under State Stamp Act and which is different for every State.


Yes, notary on Partnership Deed is necessary in every case for an unregistered or registered partnership firm.


Applying for the PAN and TAN is possible after the execution of a Partnership Firm Agreement or after partnership deed registration with respected RoF. The physical copy of the PAN will be received at the registered Business Place only after being dispatched by the Income Tax Department.


The registration of Partnership Firm in India can take 12 to 14 working days. However, the issuance of Registration Certificate can take place as per the regulations of the concerned state. The time period for registration of Partnership Firm is subject to Government processing time and that varies for every State.


The Partnership Firm shall maintain the Books of Accounts and Financial Statement. The Income Tax Return shall be filed for the respective financial year before the due date as per the Income Tax Act.


Partnership firms do not need to prepare audited statements for each year. However depending on the turnover and a few other criteria, a tax audit statement might be necessary.


A partnership firm can be converted to a Private Limited Company or a LLP considering its requirements. However, the procedures to convert a Partnership firm into a Company or LLP are cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming. Thus, it is wise for many entrepreneurs to consider and start a LLP or Company instead of a Partnership firm.

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