One Person Company Registration

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What is One Person Company?

To understand one person company definition, we first need to get into the identity it creates. A registration provides corporate status and many benefits to the members and directors. In the case of a Private company, at least two members are required which is not the same in the case of OPC. To eliminate this drawback and allow a single person to reap the advantages of One Person Company, this sort of a company structure is introduced through the Companies Act, 2013. One Person Company registration is simplified with online filing and process.

One Person Company feature is such that it has only one shareholder who owns 100% stake of the company. To maintain the character of perpetuity, the appointment of the nominee is compulsory, who will take place of the owner in case of death or his inability. One person company is a type of Private Limited Company.


Benefits of One Person Company Registration


Documents Required for Online OPC Registration

One Person Company Name Format and Formulation

Unique Name

One Person Company name should be unique as it forms the company brand, preferably a coined word.

Business Object

The OPC name format shall have the second part of name suggesting the business activity of the company.

Constitution Type

Name of the company must end with “(OPC) Private Limited” as a suffix.

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Online Registration

One Person Company Registration

*Subject to Government processing time

The Process

Process to register OPC online

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Compare different business structures to choose the right entity type

Private Limited CompanyOne Person CompanyLimited Liability PartnershipPartnership FirmProprietorship Firm
ActCompanies Act, 2013Companies Act, 2013Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008Indian Partnership Act, 1932No specified Act
Registration RequirementMandatoryMandatoryMandatoryOptionalNo
Registration under the Act is mandatory to set up business as a Private Limited CompanyRegistration under the Act is mandatory to set up business as One Person CompanyRegistration under the Act is mandatory to set up business as a Limited Liability PartnershipBoth registered and unregistered partnerships are legal, but registered entity is preferredThere is no registration criteria prescribed. But, registration to establish a legal identity is recommended
Number of members2 – 200Only 12 – Unlimited2 – 50Only 1
Requires minimum 2 and not more than 200 shareholdersOnly an individual,and an Indian resident can be the shareholderNo bar on maximum number of partners, but minimum 2 Designated Partners are requiredIt is formed with minimum 2 partners, but not exceeding 50The proprietor is the only owner of the firm
Separate Legal EntityYesYesYesNoNo
Private Company is separate entity and can own assets in its nameOPC is separate entity and can own assets in its nameLLP is separate entity from partners and can own assets in its namePartnership firm does not have any separate identity from its partnersProprietor and business are the same and not different
Liability ProtectionLimitedLimitedLimitedUnlimitedUnlimited
Liability of members is limited to the extent of unpaid value of shares subscribedLiability of member is limited to the extent of unpaid value of shares subscribedLiability of partners is limited to the capital amount agreed to introducePartners are jointly and severally liable to pay the debts of the Partnership FirmProprietor’s liability is to pay-off all the debts and obligation of a firm
Statutory AuditMandatoryMandatoryDependentNot mandatoryNot mandatory
Auditor must be appointed within the 30 days of incorporationAuditor must be appointed within the 30 days of incorporationApplicable when turnover exceeds INR 40 Lakh or contribution exceeds INR 25 LakhStatutory audit not applicable. Tax audit may be applicable based on turnoverStatutory audit not applicable. Tax audit may be applicable based on turnover
Ownership TransferabilityRestrictedNoYesNoNo
Shares can be transferred with the consent of other ShareholdersShares are not transferable easilyOwnership can be changed with consent of other partnersOwnership is not transferable easily, clause of partnership deed should be referredFirm is no different from proprietor and so ownership is not transferable
Uninterrupted ExistenceYesYesYesNoNo
Change in members or director does not affect the existence of Private CompanyChange in members or director does not affect the existence of OPC.
The nominee will take place of member
Change in Partners or Designated Partners does not affect the existence of LLPChange in partner leads to dissolution or formation of another partnership firmDeath or insolvency of proprietor directly affects the firm
Foreign ParticipationAllowedNot AllowedAllowedNot AllowedNot Allowed
Foreign national are allowed to invest under the Automatic RouteMember, nominee and director must be an Indian residentForeign nationals are allowed, subject to FDI GuidelinesForeign nationals are not allowed to be a partnerForeign Nationals cannot commence proprietorship business
Tax RatesModerateModerateHighHighLow
Tax rate applicable for small companies is reduced to 22%Tax rate applicable for small companies is reduced to 22%With tax rate of 30% on business profit, tax benefits to partners is highWith tax rate of 30% on business profit, tax benefits to partners is highTax rates of individual applied to Proprietorship Firm
Statutory CompliancesHighModerateModerateLessLess
Apart from Annual filings, it has to comply with various provision laid down, but less compared to public companyApart from Annual filing, compliances are less compared to Private CompanyAnnual filing and few event based filings are necessarySeparate ITR of partnership is filed, else there is no filing requirementNo compliances and no requirement to file a separate ITR
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Frequently Asked Questions

Explore One Person Company Registration

Below mentioned are the pre-requisites to register an OPC in India:
1. The shareholder must be individual and Indian resident
2. At least one director is appointed, who shall be an Indian resident
3. A nominee who is above the age of 18 years and Indian resident must be appointed as Nominee on registration
4. A place of business must be provided as the registered office address of OPC.

No. The requirement to provide minimum paid-up capital for OPC registration is now removed. The amount required for starting a business must be subscribed while registering OPC. Further, the subscriber must hold at least one share for registration. It is important to note that the minimum amount of INR 1 Lakh must be kept as Authorized Capital.

Only an individual can become a member of OPC. One needs to be an Indian resident above the age of 18 years to be eligible to form One Person Company. To refer one as an Indian resident, he/she must have spent at least 182 days in India in the immediate previous calendar. An additional condition is that a person can become member of only 1 OPC at any time during or after registration.

A person who is a minimum of 18 years i.e.; major, and is an Indian resident. Additionally, the nominee must provide his consent to the company for his/ her appointment.

Daily transactions of the business are recorded in the Books of Accounts of the Company by the Accountant/s. The Accounts hence recorded are verified by an Independent Auditor to make sure that no statutory compliance are missed and provide an Audit Report for the same.
(Note: shall only take the accountability of the Accounting Service provided by them but however shall help in appointment of Independent Auditor for your business.)

Any natural person above the age of 18 years can become a director in the company after procuring Director Identification Number (DIN). As there are no criteria provided in terms of citizenship or residency, a foreign national can also become a director. The application of DIN Allotment is now merged with the application for the formation of a company, subject to a limit of maximum 3 DIN.

Director Identification Number is a unique number assigned by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs to Individuals on application made. This allows any individual to be a Director in any Company or Designated Partner in LLP.

Digital Signature Certificate is provided in the form of a token issued by Certified Authorities. Any form that is filed for an online OPC registration in India shall be submitted after affixing the DSC of an Applicant. Also, the directors will require a DSC for DIN application and the nominee and shareholder shall possess DSC for submitting e-forms for incorporation.

Authorised capital shows the maximum amount of capital that a company can raise by way of issuing shares at present or in the future. The Paid-up Capital refers to the actual amount raised by the company i.e. amount paid by shareholders upon issuance of shares. One can register One Person Company in India by any amount of paid-up capital, which can be less than authorized capital but not exceeding such.

Yes, an OPC can carry multiple businesses if it is mentioned in the MoA of the company and approved by the registrar. The company can mention more than one business which is related and from the same field. Activities which are unrelated such as fashion designing and event management or construction cannot be registered under the same company.

Yes, a company can be registered at a commercial or a residential place by furnishing necessary proof. A registered office is a place where communication, if any, from MCA and other concerned authorities, will be received. The address will also be displayed at the portal of Ministry.

No, only an individual can obtain membership or become the nominee in OPC. If a body corporate wants a 100% stake of any company, it can register a wholly owned subsidiary.

No, the shareholder must be an Indian resident for OPC company registration.

No, none of the member or director is required to be present as the whole process of OPC registration is online. All the forms are filed on the web portal and are digitally signed. Also, the required documents can be sent through an e-mail or uploaded on our portal for filing.

An OPC can be converted into Private or Public Company upon completing 2 years from the date of Incorporation unless it is a mandatory conversion.

It is required to convert an OPC into a Private or Public Company when the paid-up capital of the OPC exceeds 50 lakh Rupees, or the Average Annual Turnover during the relevant period exceeds 2 Crore Rupees. The mandatory conversion will take effect irrespective of the period of existence of OPC.

Once, the company is registered, it must fulfill below-mentioned requirements on priority:
• Opening a current account of the company
• Appointing of the Statutory auditor
• Depositing the paid-up capital mentioned while registration
• Issuance and allotment of shares

During every financial year, the company must hold board meetings in case of more than 1 director. Furthermore, the accounts and financial statements must be audited by an independent auditor. Subsequently, it shall file form AOC – 4 and MGT – 7 as a part of Annual Compliance within the given time.

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